Haemorrhoids refers to a distension of the veins around the anal opening, and they may be internal or external. Distension in the veins of the external part of the anus causes external haemorrhoids, and distension in the veins of the internal part of the anus causes internal haemorrhoids.
With regard to tahaarah (purification), if the haemorrhoid is external, it does not invalidate wudoo’ and it comes under the same ruling as boils. He has to clean his garment and his body, but if that is too difficult for him, then he does not have to wash his garment or change it, so as to ward off hardship and difficulty.
If it is internal but the bleeding reaches the outside – if it is intermittent then it invalidates wudoo’, but if it is continuous then he should do wudoo’ – according to the majority of scholars – after the time for prayer begins, and he comes under the same ruling as one who suffers form urinary incontinence or istihaadah (non-menstrual bleeding).
Yahya ibn Sa’eed al-Ansaari was asked about a man who had haemorrhoids which kept coming out and he pushed them back with his hand. He said: If he has to do that every time, then he does not have to do anything more than washing his hand. If that happens a great deal and is frequent, then we do not think that he has to wash his hand. It is like a calamity that has befallen him so he is excused, like one who has an ulcer.
Al-Mudawwanah, p. 121.
Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated in al-Musannaf (1/164) from al-Sha’bi that he was asked about a man who had haemorrhoids, and he said: He should pray even if (blood) flows from his head to his feet.
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
He does not have to do wudoo’ in the case of injury or haemorrhoids, unless it is coming from the inside, in which case it invalidates wudoo’.
With regard to praying: If he is able to stand when praying, then he should do so, because standing in an obligatory prayer is an essential part of the prayer, and there is no difference of scholarly opinion on this point. If he is unable to stand because of his sickness, then he should pray sitting down. If he cannot do that, then he should pray lying on his side. This is what was stated by our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to the Sahaabi ‘Imraan ibn Husayn, who suffered from haemorrhoids.
It was narrated that ‘Imraan ibn Husayn (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I had haemorrhoids so I asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) about praying. He said: “Pray standing up, and if you cannot, then sitting, and if you cannot, then on your side.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1066).
It should be noted that if he prays sitting or on his side, he will still have the full reward, and nothing will be detracted from the reward for his prayer because of that.
It was narrated that Abu Moosa al-Ash’ari (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If a person falls sick or is travelling, there will be recorded for him (a reward) like that for the deeds that he used to do when he was not travelling and was healthy.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (2834).