Praise be to Allaah.
The institution of social security in the land of the Two
Holy Sanctuaries is an institution that helps the poor and needy and offers
help to them. It is a non-profit government institution, unlike the social
security bodies in other countries.
It is permissible for the one who is in need and who meets
the conditions stipulated by the state for the one who is entitled to
benefit from the wealth of social security to benefit from it and to take
the money that the state gives to him, even if he is one of the descendants
of the family of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).
Rather what is forbidden in their case is taking money from the obligatory
zakaah, but not from voluntary charity.
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him)
We are a family of moderate means and we are descended from
the family of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon
him). We have documents to prove that. My father has reached the age of
sixty, and the conditions for receiving social security apply to him. We
have asked our father to make use of social security, but he refused because
there is a hadeeth from the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon
him) stating that zakaah and charity should not be given to members of his
household. My question is: Is social security regarded as coming under the
same rulings as charity or not?
If your father meets the conditions with regard who may
benefit from social security, then it is permissible for him to take it
because it is help from the bayt al-maal (treasury) for the poor who meet
the required conditions. It is not zakaah according to the Department that
is responsible for that. End quote.
Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz,
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allah be
pleased with him) was asked:
We can trace our lineage back to Banu Haashim, and among our
family are those who are wanting, poor and needy; in fact they are among the
poorest of people and they do not have any income except social security for
disability and old age only. Is it permissible to give them charity, whether
this charity comes from a fellow Haashimi or otherwise? What is the ruling
if I give something to them?
If the charity is voluntary charity, then it may be given to
them and there is nothing wrong with that. But if it is obligatory charity
[i.e., zakaah], then it should not be given to them, because the Prophet
(blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Rather it is the dross of
the people.” And Banu Haashim have been honoured by Allah, may He be
glorified and exalted, in such a way that they should not take the dross of
the people. But with regard to voluntary charity, it is not regarded as
dross or filth, and there is no doubt that it expiates sin, but it is not
like obligatory zakaah. Hence many scholars are of the view that they may be
given voluntary charity but they may not be given obligatory charity. End
Majmoo‘ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen,
18/answer to question number 613.
In fact even zakaah may be given to descendants of the family
of the Prophet (since and peace of Allah be upon him) in the event that they
do not take a share of war booty, as is the case nowadays, on condition that
they do not have any other source of income apart from zakaah.
This has been discussed previously in the answer to question number 111802.