Praise be to Allaah.
Earthquakes are one of the great signs of Allaah in this
universe, with which He tests His slaves as a reminder or to instil fear of
Him or as a punishment. Man must remember, when the signs occur, his
weakness, incapability, humble status before Allaah and his need of Him, so
he turns to Allaah, may He be exalted and glorified, in supplication,
beseeching and humility, in the hope that Allaah will lift this great
distress from the people.
Allaah says (interpretation of meaning):
“Verily, We sent (Messengers) to many nations before you
(O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم). And We
seized them with extreme poverty (or loss in wealth) and loss in health
(with calamities) so that they might humble themselves (believe with
43. When Our Torment reached them, why then did they not
humble themselves (believe with humility)? But their hearts became hardened,
and Shaytaan (Satan) made fair‑seeming to them that which they used to do.
44. So, when they forgot (the warning) with which they had
been reminded, We opened for them the gates of every (pleasant) thing, until
in the midst of their enjoyment in that which they were given, all of a
sudden, We took them (in punishment), and lo! They were plunged into
destruction with deep regrets and sorrows”
Hence the fuqaha’ (may Allaah have mercy on him) regarded it
as mustahabb to offer a great deal of prayers for forgiveness and
supplications, to beseech Allaah and to give charity when earthquakes
happen, as is also mustahabb when solar and lunar eclipses occur.
The great scholar Zakariya al-Ansaari (may Allaah have mercy
on him) said:
It is mustahabb for everyone to beseech Allaah in
supplication and so on when earthquakes and similar events, such as
thunderbolts and strong winds, happen, and to offer prayers on his own in
his house lest he be negligent, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of
Allaah be upon him) said, when the wind blew strongly: “O Allaah, I ask You
for its good and the good of what is in it and the good of what it is sent
with, and I seek refuge in You from its evil and the evil of what is in it
and the evil of what it is sent with.” Narrated by Muslim. End quote.
Asna al-Mataalib Sharh Rawd al-Taalib
(1/288). See also Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj (3/65).
See also the answer to question number
But there is no evidence in the Sunnah -- as far as we know
-- to suggest that there is a particular dhikr or du’aa’ that it is
mustahabb to recite when an earthquake occurs. Rather one should offer
du’aa’ as inspired by Allaah to ask for mercy and help from Allaah, may He
be exalted and glorified, so that He might divert this calamity from the
Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
What must be done at the time of an earthquake or other
calamity, or an eclipse, strong wind or flood is to repent to Allaah, may He
be glorified, and to beseech Him and ask Him for well-being, and to remember
Him a great deal and ask Him for forgiveness, as the Prophet (blessings and
peace of Allaah be upon him) said at the time of an eclipse: “When you see
that, then turn to remembrance of Allaah and call upon Him and ask for His
forgiveness.” Agreed upon. It is also mustahabb to show compassion to the
poor and needy, and to give charity to them, because the Prophet (blessings
and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “Show mercy, you will be shown
mercy.” (Narrated by Ahmad) And he said: “Those who show mercy will be shown
mercy by the Most Merciful. Show mercy to those who are on earth and the One
Who is in heaven will show mercy to you.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi. And he
(blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “The one who does not show
mercy will not be shown mercy.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari. It was related from
‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez (may Allaah have mercy on him) that he used to
write to his emirs when earthquakes took place telling them to give
One of the means of being safe and sound from all evils is
for those in authority to hasten to restrain the foolish and compel them to
adhere to the truth, and to implement the laws of Allaah among them, and to
enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil, as Allaah says (interpretation
of the meaning):
“The believers, men and women, are Awliyaa’ (helpers,
supporters, friends, protectors) of one another; they enjoin (on the people)
Al‑Ma‘roof (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do),
and forbid (people) from Al‑Munkar (i.e. polytheism and disbelief of all
kinds, and all that Islam has forbidden); they perform As-Salaah
(Iqaamat-as-Salaah), and give the Zakaah, and obey Allaah and His Messenger.
Allaah will have His Mercy on them. Surely, Allaah is All-Mighty, All-Wise”
“Verily, Allaah will help those who help His (Cause).
Truly, Allaah is All‑Strong, All‑Mighty.
41. Those (Muslim rulers) who, if We give them power in
the land, (they) enjoin Iqamat‑as‑Salaah [i.e. to perform the five
compulsory congregational Salaah (prayers) (the males in mosques)], to pay
the Zakaah and they enjoin Al‑Ma‘roof (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that
Islam orders one to do), and forbid Al‑Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism
and all that Islam has forbidden) [i.e. they make the Qur’aan as the law of
their country in all the spheres of life]. And with Allaah rests the end of
(all) matters (of creatures)”
“And whosoever fears Allaah and keeps his duty to Him, He
will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty).
3. And He will provide him from (sources) he never could
imagine. And whosoever puts his trust in Allaah, then He will suffice him.
Verily, Allaah will accomplish his purpose. Indeed Allaah has set a measure
for all things”
And there are many verses with similar meanings. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Baaz
And Allaah knows best.