Praise be to Allaah.
There is no report in the Sunnah that the Prophet (blessings
and peace of Allah be upon him) did not pray Jumu‘ah because of rain or
snow; rather he did not pray it when travelling.
It is permissible to not pray Jumu‘ah and prayers in
congregation in the event of heavy rain, cold wind or snow which is
bothersome to people and makes it difficult for them to go to Jumu‘ah,
because of the report narrated by al-Bukhaari (901) and Muslim, according to
which Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) said to his muezzin on a rainy day: When you say
Ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasool-Allaah, do not say, Hayya ‘ala al-salaah
(come to prayer); rather say, Sallu fi buyootikum (pray in your
houses). It was as if the people found that objectionable. He said: One who
is better than me did that. Jumu‘ah is obligatory, but I did not want to
force you to walk in the mud and on slippery ground.
[al-Nawawi] said: This hadeeth indicates that Jumu‘ah may be
waived because of rain and the like. This is our view and the view of
others. Something different was narrated from Maalik (may Allah have mercy
on him). And Allaah knows best which is correct. End quote.
The Hanbalis regarded snow as one of the reasons that make it
permissible not to go to Jumu‘ah or prayers in congregation.
Its says in Kashshaaf al-Qinaa‘ (1/495): Attendance at
Jumu‘ah or prayers in congregation may be waived in the event of rain, mud,
snow, ice or a cold wind on a dark night, because of the words of Ibn ‘Umar:
The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) would ask his caller
to call out on a cold or rainy night when travelling: Pray where you are.
Agreed upon. It was also narrated from Ibn Maajah with a saheeh isnaad, but
he did not say “when travelling.” In al-Saheehayn it was narrated
from Ibn ‘Abbaas that he said to his muezzin on a rainy day -- Muslim added
that it was a Friday -- … and he narrated the hadeeth quoted above. And the
same applies to snow, ice and cold.
This confirms that cold wind on a dark night is an excuse,
because it is likely that it will rain. End quote.
It is well known that many people are not bothered by snow
and it does not prevent them from going to work and meeting other needs. For
these people, snow is no excuse for them not to attend Jumu‘ah. But if it
bothers them and makes it very hard for them to get to the mosque, then it
is an excuse.
And Allah knows best.