Praise be to Allaah.
If there is a reason for doing tayammum – such as
non-availability of water, or being unable to use it because of sickness etc
– then tayammum takes the place of wudoo’ and ghusl. So the person who is
junub should do tayammum and pray, then when he finds water he has to do
This is indicated by the Qur’aan and Sunnah.
1 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“O you who believe!
When you intend to offer As-Salaah (the prayer), wash your faces and your
hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your
heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state
of Janaaba (i.e. after a sexual discharge), purify yourselves (bathe your
whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey, or any of you comes after
answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e.
sexual intercourse), and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean
earth and rub therewith your faces and hands”
So Allaah has enjoined upon us both minor and major
purification, and tayammum could take the place of either of them. This was
stated by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa
(21/396). Minor purification is wudoo’ and major purification is ghusl.
2 – al-Bukhaari narrated in two places (344 and 348) from
‘Imraan ibn Husayn (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of
Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw a man keeping
away and not praying with the people. He said, “O So and so, what kept you
from praying with the people?” He said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I became
junub and there is no water.” He said, “You should use clean earth, for it
will suffice you.” According to another report the Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) found water and gave a vessel of water to
the one who had become junub, and said, “Go and pour this over yourself.”
This indicates that tayammum is a means of purification and
suffices instead of water, but if water is available then it must be used.
Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told him
to pour it on himself even though no new janaabah had occurred. This was
stated by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 11/239.
3 – Muslim (368) narrated
that a man came to ‘Umar and said: “I have become junub and I cannot find
any water.” He said: “Do not pray.” ‘Ammaar said: “Do you not remember, O
Ameer al-Mu’mineen, when you and I were on a campaign and we become junub,
and we could not find any water? You did not pray, but I rolled in the dust
and prayed, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)
said, ‘It would have been sufficient if you had struck the ground with your
hands then wiped your face and hands with them.’” ‘Umar said: “Fear Allaah,
O ‘Ammaar!” He said, “If you wish I will not narrate it.” ‘Umar said: “We
accept what you say.” According to another report, ‘Ammaar said: “O Ameer
al-Mu’mineen, if you wish, because of your position, I will not tell it to
‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) had forgotten that
“ ‘Umar said: ‘Fear Allaah, O ‘Ammaar!’” – What this means is
that ‘Umar said to ‘Ammaar: Fear Allaah with regard to what you are
narrating, for perhaps you have forgotten or become confused. With regard to
‘Ammaar saying, “If you wish I will not narrate it,” what this means – and
Allaah knows best – is: If you think it is better for me to refrain from
narrating it than to narrate it, then I will refrain, because it is
obligatory for me to obey you so long as that does not involve sin. The
basic principle with regard to conveying knowledge had already been
fulfilled, and if he had withheld this hadeeth after that, he would not
have come under the heading of those who withhold knowledge. It may be that
he meant, ‘I will not broadcast it so that it becomes well known among
people, rather I will only narrate it rarely.’ This was stated by
“ ‘Umar said “We accept what you say” – i.e., the fact that I
do not remember it does not means that it is not true, and I have no right
to stop you narrating it. This was stated by al-Haafiz in Fath al-Baari.
4 – Abu Dawood (334) narrated that ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas said: I
had a wet dream on a cold night during the campaign of Dhaat al-Salaasil,
and I was afraid that I would die if I did ghusl, so I did tayammum then I
led my companions in praying Fajr. They mentioned that to the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and he said: “O ‘Amr, you led
your companions in prayer when you were junub?” So I told him what had kept
me from doing ghusl. I said: “I heard that Allaah says (interpretation of
the meaning): ‘And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely,
Allaah is Most Merciful to you’ [al-Nisa’ 4:29]. The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) smiled and did not say
Al-Haafiz said in
al-Fath (1/589): its isnaad is qawiy (strong). It was classed as saheeh
by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.
Al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his
Saheeh: “If a person who is junub fears that he may become ill or die or
fears thirst then he should do tayammum,” and he mentioned that ‘Amr ibn
al-‘Aas became junub on a cold night so he did tayammum, and recited (the
verse) (interpretation of the meaning): ‘And do not kill yourselves (nor
kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you’ [al-Nisa’ 4:29].
He mentioned that to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) and he did not rebuke him.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa
Whoever becomes junub
whether as the result of a wet dream or intercourse – permissible or
forbidden – has to do ghusl and pray. If he is unable to do ghusl because
there is no water or because he will be harmed by using it – such as if he
is sick and using water will make his sickness worse, or there is a cold
wind and he fears that if he does ghusl he will become sick with a headache
or cold or bronchitis – then he should do tayammum and pray. This applies
equally to men and women. He (or she) does not have the right to delay the
prayer beyond its prescribed time.”
Shaykh Ibn Baaz was asked in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa
Does tayammum mean that the junub person no longer has to do
ghusl at all? How many prayers may he offer with tayammum?
Tayammum takes the place of water, as Allaah has made the
earth a place of worship and a means of purification for the Muslims. If no
water is available or the person is unable to use it because of sickness,
then tayammum takes its place and remains sufficient until he finds water.
When he finds water he has to do ghusl to cleanse himself of the previous
janaabah. Similarly if the sick person recovers and Allaah heals him, he has
to do ghusl to cleanse himself from the previous janaabah from which he had
purified himself by means of tayammum, because the Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Clean earth is the wudoo’ of the
Muslim if he cannot find water for ten years.” Then he said: “When you find
water, then make it touch your skin.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi from the
hadeeth of Abu Dharr (may Allaah be pleased with him); narrated by
al-Bazzaar and classed as saheeh by Ibn al-Qattaan, from the hadeeth of Abu
Hurayrah may Allaah be pleased with him.
If the junub person finds water then he should make it touch
his skin, i.e. wash with it. With regard to his past prayers, they are valid
by virtue of the tayammum he did when water was not available or he was
unable to use it, because of sickness that prevented him from using it,
until the sickness ends and he recovers and until he finds water, if none was available, even if that takes a long time.