Praise be to Allaah.
says in His Book (interpretation of the meaning):
is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allaah’s
forgiveness for the Mushrikoon, even though they be of kin, after it
has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because
they died in a state of disbelief)” [al-Tawbah 9:113]
Al-Qurtubi said in al-Ahkaam
(8/173): “This aayah means that one should cut off ties of close friendship
with the kuffaar, whether they are alive or dead. Allaah did not allow
the believers to pray for forgiveness for the mushrikeen. Seeking forgiveness
for a mushrik is something that is not permitted.”
Muslim narrated in his
Saheeh (916) from Abu
Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) said: “I asked my Lord for permission to pray for forgiveness
for my mother, and He did not permit me. I asked Him for permission
to visit her grave, and He granted me permission.”
This hadeeth makes it
clear that Allaah did not permit His Prophet, who is the noblest of
His creation, to seek forgiveness for his mother after she had died.
This is what Allaah forbids in the aayah quoted above, and the hadeeth
states this clearly. Al-Shawkaani said in Fath
al-Qadeer (2/410): This aayah implies that there are no ties
of close friendship with the kuffaar, and that it is haraam to pray
for forgiveness for them, or to make du’aa’ for kaafirs in ways that
are not permitted.
If someone were to say that Ibraaheem
prayed for his kaafir father, as he said,
be on you! I will ask forgiveness of my Lord for you. Verily, He is
unto me Ever Most Gracious”
[Maryam 19:47 – interpretation of the meaning],
the response to that is what
Allaah said in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
Ibraaheem’s (Abraham) invoking (of Allaah) for his father’s forgiveness
was only because of a promise he [Ibraaheem] had made to him (his father).
But when it became clear to him that he (his father) is an enemy of
Allaah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily, Ibraaheem was Awwah
(one who invokes Allaah with humility, glorifies Him and remembers Him
much) and was forbearing”
Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah
be pleased with him) said: When he died, it became clear to him that
he was an enemy of Allaah. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer).
And Allaah knows best.