1- Do my friend and the people with him have to offer a sacrifice because they did not manage to stay overnight in Muzdalifah although they wanted to – or not?
Does the fact that I spent the night traveling around, with all the difficulties involved, and I did not manage to stay overnight in Muzdalifah as required, and only spent a short part of the night there, mean that I also have to offer a sacrifice?
If the matter is as you described, then neither of you has to offer a sacrifice for not staying overnight in Muzdalifah, and neither do the pilgrims who were with you, because you tried your hardest to stay there overnight but you were not able to do so. Allaah says (interpretation of the meanings):
“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope”
“Allaah does not want to place you in difficulty”
“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can”
But for those who stoned Jamarat al-‘Aqabah and did Tawaaf al-Ifaadah and Sa’ee before midnight, that is not acceptable; they have to repeat the Tawaaf, Sa’ee’ and Ramiy (stoning). There is no set time limit for repeating the Tawaaf and Sa’ee, but they should hasten to do it once they know the ruling. With regard to the Ramiy the one who misses it must offer a sacrifice if he did not repeat it during the four days spent in Mina, the day of ‘Eid and the three days of al-Tashreeq. If it was done after midnight it is acceptable and there is no sin on you for that, in sha Allaah. You will be rewarded for your efforts and for the difficulty you endured.
And Allaah is the Source of strength. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.